The ‘P’ in Preservation Advocacy

Many decades ago, I told my friends that the letter ’P’ in my PhD in Romance Languages and Literatures stood for ‘perseverance.’  Getting that doctorate did require some basic smarts, but really it took focus, a passion for the subject matter, consistent efforts and time, lots of time.  Just as becoming a PhD takes Perseverance, so does being a successful Preservation advocate.

Preservation advocacy can involve directly preparing landmark nominations, raising the money to hire someone to prepare one, writing articles and books, policing rogue alterations to landmark buildings, or testifying before the city’s Landmarks Preservation Board (LPB) for the nomination of a building or against unsympathetic irreparable alterations.

I document here three examples of preservation advocacy by the Queen Anne Historical Society (QAHS).  Now celebrating the 50th anniversary of its founding, the Society has advocated for well over 50 different landmarks.  They range from churches to industrial buildings, to SRO hotels for working-class men, to homes for the rich along the boulevard and, yes, to the boulevard itself.

I am inordinately proud of this work.  With over fifteen historical societies scattered across the city, the QAHS is the only one regularly engaged in preservation advocacy.  While others have made significant contributions, ours is the only one to do it all.  In fact, the only comparable preservation advocates in the city are Historic Seattle and the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation, where unlike our all-volunteer group, paid employees do the work.

Seattle City Light Power Control Center at 157 Roy Street

This unusual building caught the eye of one of the youngest members of the QAHS board because of her passion for mid-20th c. architecture.  In 2014, she proposed that we hire someone to write the landmark nomination of the building or just do it ourselves.  Although I’d done several nominations to the National Register of Historic Places, I’d never written one for Seattle’s Landmarks Preservation Board (LPB).  In 2014, I began researching the history of this two-part octagonal/hexagonal structure on Roy Street across Warren Ave. from Metropolitan Market.  I was delighted to learn about the building’s architects Harmon, Pray and Dietrich and their place in our city’s architectural history at the time of building’s 1963 construction.  The history of Seattle City Light had been a fascination of mine ever since I learned about the ‘power war’ between it, the country’s earliest municipally owned utility, and Puget Power, an ‘off-spring’ of Stone and Webster, one of the largest power monopolies of the early 20th c.  It cheered me that Seattle voters had exiled Puget Power and acquired its Seattle systems in 1951.  I was intrigued that the construction of I-5 and the demolition of an early power control center had triggered building this one.  I also liked very much that the unusual structure lay in the shadow of the Space Needle and that its design reflected the influence of the Century 21 World’s Fair held at Seattle Center.  After numerous editorial reviews by the QAHS Preservation Committee, friendly architectural historians and the LPB staff in the Department of Neighborhoods, the society submitted the 82-page nomination in February 2016.  It helped that City Light, the building owner, endorsed the nomination.  It had smooth sailing with hearings before the LPB on May 4 and June 16.  The Power Control Center became a designated city landmark when Mayor Edward Murray signed Ordinance 125321 on June 1, 2017, three years after we had started the research for it. Talk about perseverance!

Seventh Church of Christ, Scientist at 2555 8th Ave. W.

Seventh Church of Christ, Scientist, 1941

The efforts by the QAHS to save this beautiful neighborhood church were unbelievably complicated and extended over many years.  Built in a Neo-Byzantine Early Christian Revival style and designed by Harlan Thomas (Thomas & Grainger) in 1926, the church reflected the historic boom of the Church of Christ, Scientist following its founding by Mary Baker Eddy in Boston in 1870, and its decline after WWII.  In the churches’ heyday, Seattle had 12 Churches of Christ, Scientist.  Only three remain active today (2021).

When the City of Seattle issued a demolition permit for the church in 2006, the QAHS and its Preservation Committee led by Char Eggleston and Leanne Olson sprang into action.  The committee engaged the Queen Anne Community Council; it enlisted the pro-bono efforts of preservation architects and structural engineers; it appealed and testified before the Hearing Examiner against the city for issuing the demolition permit; it supported other appellants in succeeding to have the city’s decision remanded; and it assisted Larry Johnson, the architect who had been attempting to save the church since 1992, with the preparation of the landmark nomination.  The Preservation Committee engaged the assistance of the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation whose staff facilitated the purchase of this neighborhood treasure by the Church of Christ following an agreement with the site’s owner to sell if a new buyer could be found. Concurrently Char convinced the Church of Christ to support designation of the building and site.  Mayor Mike McGinn signed the ordinance designating the church a city landmark four years after the battle began on July 16, 2010. It never would have happened without the advocacy efforts of the Queen Anne Historical Society.

The Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Garfield Exchange at 1529 4th Ave. W.

Garfield Exchange, 1936

Built to house heavy telephone equipment and the young women who operated it, this landmark was completed in 1922.  A second story was added in 1929, and the structure was later donated to the Seattle Public Library by the telephone company.  When the Library got ready to sell the building, it hired BOLA Architecture and Planning to prepare a landmark nomination for the LPB’s consideration.  When BOLA presented the nomination, the QAHS swung into action writing letters and testifying in favor of the nomination and subsequent designation.  Once designated as a city landmark, the controls and incentives negotiated with the LPB by the Seattle Public Library protected the building as it changed ownership.  Soon after the 2016 designation and its purchase, the new owner, the Faul Company and their architect, BuildingWork, began presenting design options to the Architectural Review Committee (ARC) of the LPB.  The QAHS attended numerous meetings of the ARC related to the Garfield Exchange commenting on the transformation of the industrial spaces to 25 residential apartment homes featuring 15-foot ceiling heights and restoration of the building’s exterior façade, its seismic retrofit and new building systems.  The proposed changes included a redesign of the primary entrance leading to the street, the replacement of windows, the introduction of a new elevator in the hidden courtyard on the south side and the addition of a penthouse.  The Queen Anne Historical Society did not oppose the hidden changes in the courtyard and embraced the penthouse addition since it was set back from the historic façade and could not be seen from the street directly in front of the building.  Significantly the penthouse addition met the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Historic Preservation by not mimicking in the new work historic qualities of the original fabric.  The society demanded the retention of the terra cotta capped stairway with its unique hammerhead shape and encouraged retention of a historic hoisting device on the alley side of the building.

Queen Anne Exchange, July 2021, looking west. Restored Entrance

After some initial resistance, we agreed to the sympathetic replacement of all the windows.  We continued to support the project following resistance by neighborhood groups which had concerns with street parking impacts.

As of this writing (July 14, 2021), this fantastic preservation project now renamed the Queen Anne Exchange is one apartment short of being fully leased.  Housing has been created for more than 25 people and an important feature of Queen Anne’s historic built environment has been preserved. The energy, risk taking, and talent of Chris and Angela Faul backed by the talent of Matt Aalfs, the primary architect and principal of BuildingWork, are largely responsible for the superb outcome.  It also helped that, like the Power Control Center, a city agency owned the Garfield Exchange at the time of nomination and designation, for building owners are often major obstacles when it comes to preserving historic buildings.

Queen Anne Exchange – July ’21 – Waiting for cornice – looking west

There is also no doubt that the preservation advocacy skills of the Queen Anne Historical Society eased the public and private efforts to save all three of these historic buildings and assured their conformity to our national standards.  It is also clear that without the society’s assertive preservation advocacy, the Seventh Church of Christ, Scientist would have been lost, and both the Power Control Center and the Garfield Exchange would have been subject to demolition due to the valuable development potential of their sites.


How Time Flies

About ten years ago, I posted an article on about the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Historic Preservation.  That article simply gave the definition for these key words: Preservation, Rehabilitation, Restoration, and Reconstruction.[1]  Now as in 2012, Queen Anne has no examples of restored or reconstructed buildings.  Knowing the meaning of those three R’s (and a P too!) is useful as people plan work on historic buildings, landmarks or not!  It is helpful to know that taste plays no role in applying the standards.

It is useful to look at three recently altered Queen Anne properties and evaluate them against the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards.  It helps that one of the projects, the Queen Anne Exchange (formerly the Garfield Exchange), is a city landmark and subject to all the constraints landmark designation puts on the owner/developer.  Of the three examples, the work on that building falls closest to the line between Preservation and Rehabilitation.

These examples differ from one another in significant ways.  The Garfield Exchange (preservationists prefer original names), located at the southwest corner of 4th Ave W. and W. Garfield, is an industrial building in the heart of a single-family neighborhood that has been converted to residential use.  It is additionally significant because along with the Queen Anne branch of the Seattle Public Library and the Masonic Temple, its predecessor as a telephone exchange, it is one of three city landmarks sited within spitting distance of one another at basically the same intersection.  The second more modest example at 2406 Queen Anne Ave. N. is an almost totally rebuilt house that serves as a buffer between the commercial and residential buildings of our primary thoroughfare.  The third example at 2002 1st Ave. N. on the northwest corner of Newton St. is also a buffer of sorts especially because of the looming Safeway project that is to get underway this summer of 2021, but its site high over the street gives it a distinctive prominence.  Even after egregious modifications, it is still a relatively good example of the Secretary’s definition of Rehabilitation.

The Garfield Exchange

Like a number of similar buildings constructed in Seattle and throughout the region, the Garfield Exchange was designed to house heavy machine switching equipment.  Construction began in May 1921, and it was completed the following September at a cost of $138,000 (The Seattle Times, 9.2.1923).   It went into service at midnight on September 2, 1923, when it took over 6,100 lines from the older exchange office diagonally across the street (now the Masonic Center under reconstruction in June 2021).

Queen Anne Masonic Center. June 2021. QAHS

The Garfield Exchange building is u-shaped.  Its two arms are separated by a narrow courtyard that runs north south and which is not visible from the street.  It was constructed as a one-story building on a basement.  In 1929, a second story was added to the first.  Pacific Telephone &  Telegraph exchange buildings generally featured Beaux Arts and classical revival design elements.   Queen Anne’s has a relatively more elaborate east façade, with a projecting entry porch with symmetrical opposing stairs, and an entry surround embellished by ornamental terra-cotta.  It is made with steel and concrete framing and deep reinforced concrete floor slabs.  The Garfield Exchange was relatively fire-resistant with masonry cladding and concrete fire proofing.  Windows were typically large  double-hung types. The brick laid up in English bond with clever use of soldier courses is a noteworthy feature of this functional design.

The Garfield Exchange building remained in service through 1967, when Pacific Northwest Bell no longer needed the equipment and found that the “demolition costs and restrictive zoning offset the commercial value of the land.”  Subsequently, the company donated the Garfield Exchange to the Seattle Public Library which used it as storage building. (The Seattle Times, 9.6.1978).[2]

North elevation with penthouses and new garage seen from public library. Photo QAHS

Renamed the Queen Anne Exchange in 2020 by the Faul Company its developers, the generally abandoned interior of the structure has been converted to apartments.  It opened in May of this year (2021).  BuildingWork, the project architect, included a complete seismic retrofit, restoration of the historic brick and terra cotta façade, a new top floor addition, a new parking garage in the basement, multi-family residential units, a common roof terrace, all new mechanical and electrical systems and full life-safety and accessibility upgrades.  The building’s beautiful façade, concrete floor structure, tall floor-to- floor heights, and generous vertically proportioned windows are particularly well-suited to its transformation to residential use.  Dramatically, the Landmarks Preservation Board gave the developer permission to add a penthouse, replace the historic windows and add a garage in the basement.  At the behest of the Queen Anne Historical Society, it did not allow a long straight stair to the street that would have replaced the elegant symmetrically opposing stairs that have been saved.

Terra cotta entry and wonderful stair Queen Anne Historical society helped protect. Photo QAHS.

The changes to the building including the replacement of windows and the penthouse additions are consistent with the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation.  Perhaps because it is visibly accessed from Garfield Street, the garage in the basement is a bit hard to swallow, but it too is consistent with the standards and almost entirely below grade.  There is also a touch of Restoration here, for architect Matt Aalfs, the principal and owner of BuildingWork, found an identical example of the building in Wallingford from which he was able to borrow the profile of the rebuilt cornice.  Best of all, the new cornice is made of lightweight materials and, once installed, won’t fall off like the terra cotta it replaces.

New windows and brackets waiting for the new cornice

2406 Queen Anne Avenue North

2406 Queen Anne Ave N. Front looking eastward before any work. King County Parcel Viewer

The small house located just north of Local Eats and Barg French Cleaners is on a narrow lot and is a critical buffer building forming the transition from the commercial zone along busy Queen Anne Avenue and defining the single-family residential neighborhood that spills down the hill towards the Lake Washington Ship Canal.  The visibility of both the front and back yards from neighboring streets and the alley increases dramatically the significance of its buffering qualities.

Excavating for the new foundation. Note gable truss work.

After gutting the interior down to the studs, owners Paige and Trevor ripped off the two modest ca. 1950s additions on the rear of the 1905 house and replaced them with a two-story addition that adds welcome space and a second-floor bathroom. The overall goal the owners have in mind is the rehabilitation of the historic spirit of the house!

Demolition underway with Paige and Trevor

They report, “We reconstructed all the details from the original rear gable truss on the addition.”  The brackets under the rear porch were built to match the ones on the front porch, and the front porch ceiling will be replaced with salvaged unpainted beadboard like the rear porch ceiling.  Comparing the photograph from the King County Parcel Viewer that predates the work to the recent image of the rear of the house reveals the consistency of the rehabilitation with the house as built.  With the price of lumber through the roof but wishing to use material that harmonizes with the building’s original look, the owners were delighted to discover through another preservation enthusiast on the hill eucalyptus siding from Latin America that closely matches the look and feel of the fir siding originally on the exterior of the house.

Rehabilitated house showing new gable truss, addition and deck. Looking west from the alley.

Painting the house various shades of green nicely reflected, “both Victorian and Craftsman era homes since ours has nods to both.  But it also feels a little modern,” Paige noted.  This project offers a model of what rehabilitation can be while following the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards.  I can’t wait to add the photo of the finished street façade and garden.

2002 First Avenue North

View of 2002 1st Ave N. looking eastward at the restored balcony. King County Parcel Viewer

The rehabilitation of this imposing American foursquare on set high above the northeast corner of First North and Crockett is the work of former owners.  In 1985, long before they purchased the house, I planted a large bamboo garden outside our kitchen window to hide house’s vinyl siding and ugly trim from our view.  The need for the bamboo gives you an idea of how much work it took to rehabilitate this stand out building.  Bob and Janet, the owners responsible for the transformation, stripped off the vinyl siding and refinished and rebuilt the exterior surfaces including the front door.  Luckily, the folks installing the vinyl hadn’t stripped away all the clapboard or damaged too much of the stucco first used to protect the house from the weather.  Bob carefully removed all the paint on the original materials and varnished the solid oak front door being careful to preserve the metal scroll that holds the doorknob and the lock.  This scroll is indeed a Queen Anne feature.  There’s one on our house and quite a few others around the hill.  Check out for example the large and welcoming one on our branch of the public library.  Bob and Janis’s most creative touch involved the reconstruction of the narrow balcony on the second floor on the west facing façade.  It harmoniously blended with this early 20th house and was based on research the couple did by patrolling just about every street on the hill looking for models they might adopt. Unfortunately, recent owners undid the good work on that façade that still shows up on the county’s Parcel Viewer, so you can compare it to what’s there now.  Otherwise, the house remains a good example of what the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards call rehabilitation.

2002 1st N. Balcony replacement of ca. 2018. Note leaded windows in balcony door. Photo QAHS

[1] The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, 1995:

Preservation is defined as the act or process of applying measures necessary to sustain the existing form, integrity, and materials of an historic property.  Work, including preliminary measures to protect and stabilize the property, generally focuses upon the ongoing maintenance and repair of historic materials and features rather than extensive replacement and new construction.  New exterior additions are not within the scope of this treatment; however, the limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a preservation project.

Reconstruction is defined as the act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features, and detailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location.

Rehabilitation is defined as the act or process of making possible a compatible use for a property through repair, alterations, and additions while preserving those portions or features which convey its historical, cultural, or architectural values.

Restoration is defined as the act or process of accurately depicting the form, features, and character of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of features from other periods in its history and reconstruction of missing features from the restoration period.  The limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a restoration project.

[2] The description of the Garfield Exchange is based on the nomination to the Landmarks Preservation Board prepared by BOLA Architects in 2016.

John Marshall Hoyt, Civil War Veteran (1837-1923)

Posted by Michael Herschensohn in Queen Anne Cobblestone Memorial Day 2021

John Marshall Hoyt, born March 29, 1837 in Warner, Merrimack County, New Hampshire, died November 3, 1923 in Seattle. He served as a Captain in Company K of the 7th Wisconsin Infantry throughout the Civil War, including the Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863.

He married Mary Hoyt, and the family relocated to Seattle.

According to Richard Heisler — a historian of Seattle’s Civil War veterans — following Captain Hoyt’s death his body was buried at the Capitol Hill Cemetery of the Grand Army of the Republic.

Following Mary Hoyt’s death in 1924, John’s body was disinterred and moved to Queen Anne’s Mount Pleasant Cemetery to a grave adjacent to Mary’s — both of them unmarked.

In June 2021, the US Army paid for a tombstone that finally marks John’s grave, located in the northeast corner of the cemetery — due north of the tombs of victims of The Valencia shipwreck of 1906 and the Everett Massacre of 1916.  One of the few all-white stones, it stands under a tree.  Mary’s grave, just to the right of John’s, remains unmarked.

On Memorial Day 2021, Richard Heisler and Queen Anne Historical Society Board President Michael Herschensohn  joined those who visited Mt. Pleasant to place US flags at the graves of those who served.

Note:  Click HERE to take Kim Turner’s August 2020 virtual tour of Mount Pleasant Cemetery.